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anhydrous sodium sulfate formula is a white, crystalline, nontoxic compound of the chemical formula Na2SO4. It is a salt and contains two sodium ions (Na+) and one sulfate ion (SO42-). Sodium sulfate is commonly used as a drying agent in industrial applications because it readily absorbs water molecules from the air, which can help remove moisture from materials. It is also a common ingredient in the formulation of certain pharmaceutical products and a food additive.

Sodium sulfate naturally occurs in arid environments as the mineral thenardite and in its deca hydrate form, Glauber’s salt (Na2SO410H2O), which is produced from natural resources such as gypsum rock or as a by-product of other industrial processes including the production of hydrochloric acid with sulfuric acid in the Mannheim process or from sodium chloride with hydrogen sulfide in the Hargreaves process. The majority of world production of the anhydrous sodium sulfate is by-product from these processes.

In soil, sulfate is expected to infiltrate rapidly and dissolve in water, with little bioconcentration or uptake by living organisms(1). Sodium and sulfate ions are generally considered to be beneficial to aquatic species, although the acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) has been demonstrated in diluted well water (hardness 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-day and 7-day exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-day and 41-day exposures) and a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-day and 28-day exposures).

When ingested, anhydrous sodium sulfate can cause gastrointestinal distress such as nausea and vomiting and abdominal cramps, particularly with high doses or prolonged use(2). It can also cause allergic reactions in some people.

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