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Overview of Nano diamond The nano-diamonds, also known as diamond nanoparticles, are diamonds smaller than 1 micron in diameter and can be made from an impact event like an earthquake or a meteorite strike. Due to its low cost, ease of large-scale synthetic, surface functionalization, high biocompatibility and easy synthesis, nano diamond has been extensively studied in the electronic, biological and quantum engineering areas.
Structure of nanodiamond
It is important to consider three main aspects of the structure and function of diamond nanoparticles. Based on a number of experiments, it was determined that the shape and size of diamond nanoparticles are spherical or rectangular. The diamond-colored core of diamond nanoparticles consists mainly of carbon. The core structure is similar to diamond but the diamond nanoparticles’ surface is more similar to graphite. A recent study revealed that the surface is mainly made of carbon. However, it also contains a lot of phenol and pyrrole as well as sulfonic, carboxylic, and hydroxyl groups. Sometimes, there are defects in the structure of diamond-nanoparticles. Recent studies have shown that the size of diamond nuclei decreases the frequency of nitrogen-vacancy center.
Production methods for nano-diamond
Other than the explosion, other synthesis methods include hydrothermal, ion bombing, laser bombardment and microwave plasma chemicalvapor deposition. High-purity nanoparticles can also be produced by high-pressure and high-temperature graphite C3N4 decomposition. For commercial production of Nano Diamonds, the industry standard is detonation-synthesis. The most common explosive used to produce them is a mixture trinitrotoluene/hexose or monosaccharide.
The explosion takes place in a stainless steel chamber that is sealed and oxygen-free. It produces Nano diamonds as well as other graphite compound averaging 5 nanometers. Nano diamonds can only be created by detonation synthesis if there is no oxygen. This happens at temperatures above 3000K and pressures over 15 GPa. To prevent the formation nanoparticles of diamond, the oxidation system must be rapidly cooled to increase the production of Nano-diamonds. This is because diamond remains the most stable under such conditions. Detonation synthesizers use liquid and gas coolants like water, water-based mousse and ice. Detonation results in synthesis, which is a mixture nano diamond particles and graphite carbon forms. Therefore, thorough cleaning must be done to remove all impurities. Gaseous ozone treatment and solution phase nitric acids oxidation are used most often to remove SP2 metal impurities.
Application prospect of Nano diamond
Nano diamond’s strength, hardness, thermal conductivity and biocompatibility are unique, making it a popular choice for precision polishing, lubrication and high-performance metal matrix composites.
Nano diamond is a material of rich characteristics and connotations. This is an area that presents great opportunities and challenges. Nano diamond is a product of years of research and production. This material can be used to produce raw materials, defense industry, precision polishing industry, biomedicine, electronic, mechanical and chemical industries. There are many applications for this material in our everyday lives. I believe it will have a wide application in different industries in the near future.
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