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Silicon nitride The chemical formula is: The chemical formula of iodine is:
3Si(s) + 2N2(g) -Si3N4(s)

This can be done with diimine.
SiCl4(l) + 6NH3(g) -Si(NH)2(s) + 4NH4Cl(s) (at 0 degC)
3Si(NH)2(s) -Si3N4(s) +N2(g) + 3H2(g) (at 1000 degC)

Use the carbothermal reduction to synthesize under an atmosphere of nitrogen at 1400-1450degC.
3SiO2(s) + 6 C(s) + 2N2(g) -Si3N4(s) + 6 CO(g)

The method of nitriding atomic silicon powder was discovered in the 1950s. This method is also the only one that allows for the mass production of Silicon Nitride Powder. The silicon nitride powder will be impure if the quality of the raw silicon material is poor.
The diamine method produces amorphous silicon nitride, which must be further annealed in nitrogen at 1400-1500degC before it can become a powder. Currently, the diamine method is only relevant in terms of commercial production.
The most efficient and cost-effective way of producing silicon nitride is through the carbothermal reaction.
Electronic grade silicon nitride The film is made by either chemical vapor deposited or plasma enhanced chemical-vapor deposition:

3SiH4(g) + 4NH3(g) -Si3N4(s) + 12H2(g) 3SiCl4(g) + 4NH3(g) -Si3N4(s) + 12 HCl(g) 3SiCl2H2(g) + 4NH3(g) -Si3N4 (s) + 6 HCl(g) + 6H2(g)

Two methods are available to deposit Silicon Nitride on a Semiconductor Substrate:
1. Use low pressure chemical vaporization technology using a tube furnace, either vertically or horizontally.
2. The plasma-enhanced vapor deposition technique is used under vacuum conditions of relatively low temperature.
The unit cell parameter of silicon nitride is different than that of elemental Silicon. Dependant on the deposition technique, the silicon nitride generated film can either generate tension, or stress. Adjusting the deposition parameter is a great way to reduce tension, especially when using plasma enhanced chemical vapor technology.
To obtain silicon nitride, the first step is to prepare silica using the sol-gel process. Next, the silica containing ultrafine carbon particles will be processed with the carbothermal method of reduction, followed by nitridation. The ultrafine carbon particles are formed by decomposing glucose at 1200-1350degC. The reactions which are part of the synthesis can be:

SiO2(s), C(s), SiO(g), CO(g), Si3N4 (s), + 3CO2G, or Si3N4 (s), + 3CO2G, or SiO2(s), 2N2G + CO(g),


Processing silicon nitride block
Silicon nitride As a granular product, it is difficult to work with. It can’t be heated higher than its melting point (1850degC) because silicon nitride would decompose to silicon and nitrogen. Hot press sintering is no longer acceptable. By adding binders or sintering aids, the powdered silicon nitride can be bonded to form a solid material. Due to the necessity of adding binders or other sintering aids to the material, impurities will be introduced. Another method to produce purer bulk material is spark plasma sintering. The compacted powder will be pulsed within a short period of time (a few seconds). This method works at temperatures between 1500degC and 1700degC. The temperature at which you want to obtain compact and dense lumps of silicon nitride.

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