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onvert coal into Nano graphite
A team of international researchers has proven that it only takes 15 minutes to transform pulverized coke into high-value coal
. Researchers explain how microwaves can be used to create an atmosphere where raw coal is successfully converted to Nano graphite. Nano graphite has many uses, from lubricants to lithium-ion batteries and fire extinguishers.
They believe that this “metal assisted microwave processing one step method” is a relatively simple and inexpensive method to convert coal in Wyoming’s Powder River Basin. According to TeYu Chen’s team at the University of Wyoming despite previous studies showing that microwaves could reduce coal moisture and remove sulfur as well as other minerals but most of these methods required special chemical pretreatment of coal. The experiment only required the coal to be pulverized. After that, put the coal powder on copper foil. Seal it in glass containers with a mix of argon hydrogen gas. Finally, put it into the microwave.
Chris Masi is the lead author. He stated that “by cutting the copper foil in a fork-shaped shape, microwaves will generate sparks. These can create extremely high temperatures of over 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit innerhalb of a few second.” The high temperature then transforms the pulverized coke. This process also involves copper foil, hydrogen and polycrystalline graphite. The team (which includes researchers from New York Nepal and China) believes this new coal-to-graphite conversion method can improve and be implemented at a large scale in order to produce higher quality graphite materials.
It is a good idea to use a bilingual translator
This is a natural form of crystalline Carbon. It is found as a native mineral in metamorphic or igneous rocks. Graphite can be described as a mineral that is characterized by extremes. It is very hard, but cleaves easily with very little pressure. It also has a low specific gravity. It is a material that is highly resistant to heat. This extreme property gives it a variety of uses in manufacturing and metallurgy.
Graphite, a mineral, is formed when carbon is heated and pressed in Earth’s crust or upper mantle. To produce graphite, temperatures and pressures between 750°C and 75,000 lbs per square inch are needed. These correspond to granulite facies.
Most of the graphite found on Earth today was created at the convergent plates boundaries when organic-rich limestones and shales were exposed to heat and pressure during regional metamorphism. This results in marble, schist, or gneiss containing tiny crystals of graphite.
If the concentrations of graphite are high enough, the rocks can be mined. They can then be crushed into flakes and separated by specific gravity or flotation. The product is called “flake-graphite.”
Graphite can be formed from coal seams that have undergone metamorphism. The organic material of coal is mainly composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. The heat generated by metamorphism destroys coal’s organic molecules, releasing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. What is left after metamorphism is almost pure carbon that crystallizes to form mineral graphite.
This graphite appears in “seams,” which correspond with the original layer coal. This material is mined as “amorphous Graphite.” This is not the correct use of “amorphous”, as it has a crystal structure. The material is similar in appearance to coal lumps, without the banding.
Diamonds and Graphite
Diamond and carbon are two minerals that contain carbon. Under extreme heat and pressurized, diamond is formed in the mantle. The majority of graphite that is found on Earth’s surfaces was formed at lower temperatures and under less pressure in the crust. Graphite has the same chemical composition as diamond but is structurally very different.
The graphite sheets are formed by a hexagonal web of carbon atoms. Each sheet is one atom thick. The sheets are not well connected, and can easily be cleaved or slid over each other when a slight force is applied. This is the reason graphite has a very low level of hardness. It also gives it its perfect cleavage and its slippery feeling.
Carbon atoms of diamonds are linked in a framework structure. Every carbon atom in a diamond is connected to four other carbons by strong covalent bonds. The arrangement of the atoms keeps them firmly in position and makes diamond a hard material.
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