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Lithium is the lightest metal in the Earth and is used in many batteries like those found in laptops, cell phones, and electric cars. It is also used in ceramics and glass.

Extraction of lithium from salts and minerals requires special equipment since these are extremely corrosive. Lithium extraction from salt brine can be achieved with a process called electrolysis, which is performed by passing a solution of lithium chloride and potassium chloride through an electrolyte.

Another way to extract lithium is to use a method called fused-salt electrolysis, which produces metallic lithium by melting eutectic lithium chloride and potassium chloride at 450 degrees C. During this process, lithium collects on the surface of the chloride melt and is easily removed from the electrolyte.

Alternatively, it is possible to extract lithium from clay sources. It is not as economically viable as lithium extraction from salts, however, as it requires much more energy to mine.

The most common lithium source for a wide range of applications is lithium carbonate, which is extracted from spodumene, lepidolite, petalite, amblygonite, and eucryptite rock. These are characterized by their high lithium content.

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