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What is single-layer Graphene?
Single-layer Graphene is a two-dimensional honeycomb graphite made of one layer of carbon. It’s the thinnest, but stiffest, material in the universe. The covalent bond sp2 between each carbon atom gives it a fracture strength 200 times higher than steel. It is almost completely transparent, and absorbs only 2.3% light. The thermal conductivity of this material is up to 5300 W/m. K is higher than diamond and carbon nanotubes; the resistivity only 0.96×10-6 is lower than copper or silver. Graphene currently has the smallest resistivity in the world. The graphene’s novel feature is that, in the absence doping, it is the Fermi levels located at the junction of the valence and conduction bands. The electron’s mass is equal to zero at this point. This causes the carrier to appear as a Dirac. Fermions can have a carrier conductivity of up to 200,000 cm2/V. They also have a high current density. The graphene conductivity is still present even without carrier transmission. S=e2/h. Its Hall effect at room temperature expands its original temperature range ten-fold. This shows unique carrier characteristics as well as excellent electrical qualities. The unique electronic properties of graphene make it possible to confirm relativistic quantum-electrodynamic effects, which are hard to observe with particle physics.
Single-layer graphene applications:

Graphene, the most suitable material for creating nanoelectronics devices. The devices made from it are smaller and consume less power. They also transmit electrons more quickly. Graphene is a good material for high-frequency transistors. Even when only one hexagonal structure is present, graphene’s nanometer-scale stability is very important for developing molecular electronic devices. Single-electronic components prepared by electron beam printing and etching technology may break through the limits of traditional electronic technology, and have excellent application prospects in the fields of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, memory, and sensors, and are expected to be the development of ultra-high-speed computer chips. The medical industry will also benefit greatly from this breakthrough.

Single-layer films of graphene can also be made into microscopic filters to decompose gasses. In medical research, a thin film of one atom thickness can support molecules to be observed and analysed by electron microscopes. This will greatly help the medical community in developing new medical technologies. Graphene is able to detect gases with an external noise and accurately identify individual molecules. This could have applications in chemical probes and molecular sensors.

Single-layer graphene is widely used as a semiconductor electronic package due to its excellent properties in terms of electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties.

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