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sodium carbonate monohydrate molecular weight is the weight average of the molar masses of the anhydrous form and the water-soluble sodium carbonate (sodium bicarbonate). Sodium carbonate is commonly known as soda ash and it is widely used in household cleaning and laundry applications. It is also used as an excipient and antacid in pharmaceutical formulations.
Sodium carbonate is moderately toxic by ingestion, inhalation and skin contact and is poisonous by intravenous injection. It is irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract. Overexposure to dust or vapor may irritate the mucous membranes, causing coughing and shortness of breath. It is a skin irritant and corrosive to the eyes. It has been experimentally shown to have reproductive effects. Sodium carbonate decomposes at temperatures above 400 and produces carbon dioxide gas. It reacts violently with aluminum, fluorine, phosphorous pentoxide and sulfuric acid.
NF grade sodium carbonate is an alkali base, also called “soda ash”. It is a white, odorless powder that is hygroscopic and forms a strongly basic solution in water. Sodium carbonate is used in many pharmaceutical formulations including injectable, ophthalmic, oral and rectal formulations. Sodium carbonate is combined with an acid, such as citric or tartaric acids, to form effervescent tablets and granules. It is also used in gastrointestinal products such as lozenges and chewing gums. Sodium carbonate is FDA approved as an inactive ingredient for parenteral medicines (injection, ophthalmic, oral and rectal solutions) and nonparenteral medicines (oral effervescent tablets and granules, soluble tablets). It is also listed as GRAS.