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What is Manganese Dioxide?
The inorganic compound MnO2 is a powdery black substance that has the chemical formula. It’s insoluble with water, weak acids and bases, nitric or cold sulfuric acid. It’s used to prepare manganese-salt, but also as an oxidizer or rust remover.
Manganese Dioxide Preparation
Manganese dioxide can be obtained mainly by smelting soft manganese ores. Manganese dioxide can be produced by electrolysis using high-temperature sulfate solutions. Manganese carbonate ore as well as soft manganese oxide ore may be used. Preparation of manganese-sulfate solutions includes leaching and iron removal. Neutralization, heavy metals removal, filtration and static removal of magnesium and calcium are also included. After high temperature electrolysis, a crude product is produced. Then, after stripping and crushing, washing and neutralization, drying and other treatments, qualified crystals are obtained. When using manganese chloride solution electrolysis can produce fibrous manganese dioxide. The pyrolysis of manganese chloride, manganese dioxide, and manganese carbate is also possible. These are made through the direct oxidation low-valent manganeseoxide with oxidants, such as chlorine gas, sodium chlorate etc. The combined reaction is a separate process.
Manganese dioxide – Applications
Manganese dioxide is used as a depolarizing and decolorizing agent in the dry cell industry, as well as an oxidizing and catalyst agent for the synthetic industry. It can also be used to color glass and enamel, or deiron it. It is used for the production of manganese, special alloys, ferromanganese, gas masks and electronic material ferrit. In the rubber industry, it is also used to increase the stickyness of rubber. It can also act as a catalyst in chemical experiments.
Manganese dioxide is used in organic synthesis
This element is useful in organic chemistry. As manganese oxide has different crystalline forms, the formula is MnO2-x-(H2O), where x is between 0 and 0.5 and n exceeds 0. Manganese dioxide is produced by reactions between potassium permanganate KMnO4 and manganese Sulfate MnSO4 at different pHs. at different pHs.
Manganese dioxide can be used to convert alcohols to aldehydes. The manganese oxide will not oxidize the alcohol if it has a double-bond:
The product won’t be oxidized even if its more active. Dialdehyde can be produced by oxidizing diols with manganese oxide. Manganese oxide can perform a wide range of reactions.
Uses of Manganese Dioxide in Laboratory
As a catalyst for the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen.
Use as a decomposition catalyst by heating potassium chlorate to produce oxygen.
Aluminothermic Reaction with Monolithic Aluminum Powder to Produce Manganese.
Yellow glass, for example, is used as a colorant.
Makes chlorine gas when heated concentrated hydrochloric acids is reacted with.
Produces potassium manganate when reacting with molten caustic Potash (potassium Hydroxide) in air.
Manganese oxide is used to autocatalyze the reaction between potassium permanganate and manganese.
Overview of Manganese Dioxide Toxicity
Poisoning is a health hazard: excessive manganese in the body. Acute poisoning in industrial production is rare, particularly in the extrapyramidal. Metal fume fever can result if a large quantity of fumes is inhaled over a short amount of time. The patient may experience headaches and nausea, as well as high fevers and sweating. Chronic poisoning is characterized by a variety of symptoms, including neurasthenia syndrome and disorders of plant nervous function. Mental symptoms such as excitation-inhibition imbalances, and toxic psychosis are also common.
Flammability Hazard : The product does not burn and is irritating.
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